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Classification of textiles

Published: 2019-07-12

Classification according to Textile making processes

Knitting -This is a process in which loops of fibers are interlocked to form the fabric.Weft knitting involves forming of loops one at a time in a weftways direction. Eg. Purl knit, Interlock, Rib knit

Warp knitting involves a set of arp yarns which are simultaneously formed into loops. These loops are interlinked by connecting the chains of loops with warp thread which are moved sideways.

Felting – This is a process which makes use of heat, pressure and moisture and adhesives to interlock fibers to produce the fabric

Weaving – This is a process in which warp fibers( threads that is lying along the length of the fabric) and weft fibers (threads  that are lying along the width of the fabric) are interlaced to form the fabric

Non woven methods – The fabric is made directly without knitting or weaving with the fibers held together with gum, resin, heat and pressure, or needle punching. The processes include Felted, Spun-Bonded, Film Tufted, Needlepunched ,Spun-Laced Foam and Stitch-Bonded

Braiding – Fibers are twisted and braided – some trimmings are made this way

Knotting and interlacing – Fibers are knotted at intersections interlaced and interlooped to form an open mesh fabric.Lace is an open work fabric made by looping plaiting or twisting thread by means of a needle or a set of bobbins ; this includes fabrics made by crochet . Fishing nets, macrame etc are other examples.

Classification of textiles based on their weave

According to the method by which the textiles are made they can be classified as follows

Plain weave textiles eg : Most fabrics Muslin, broadcloth, Canvas ( In this type of woven textiles the weft yarn is alternately passed over one warp yarn and under the next yarn perpendicular to each other) 

Satin weave textiles Eg: Satin . (Woven Textiles with a smooth finish on one side and a matt finish on the other side due to the weaving that makes either weft or warp thread dominating the weaving structure.)

Twill weave textiles Eg. Denim (Woven Textiles made in a special weaving pattern that produces a diagonal weave / ridges throughout the fabric)

Basket weave, rib weave, dobby weave, jacquard weave, herringbone weave etc are other types of classifications. 

Single cloth or Double cloth

According to the way the fabric is woven the textiles are further categorized as single cloth or double cloth

The single cloth is made when one yarn of warp and one yarn of weft are interlaced. In this type, there may be a balance of weft and warp yarns or an imbalance. When there is a balance and the weft and warp yarns are of equal thickness, the textile is called an ordinary structure. But where there is a prominence of a yarn this is called a rib structure.  There may be warp rib structure with weft yarn stronger and a warp surface rib is formed.

In some textiles extra threads (wapr or weft) are stitched on the back of the fabric for weight – (this is not visible from the front). This is called a backed cloth

A double cloth will have two warp and two weft yarns interlacing resulting in a much stronger textile with more weight. Sometimes the double cloth is separated as in the case of velvet.